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KOLHAPUR DISTRICT
INVENTORY OF MONUMENTS
MUMBAI CIRCLE
Formerly a princely state of the Bhonsle dynasty under the Deccan division of the Bombay Presidency, Kolhapur was an important Maratha province, after the other dominions such as Baroda, Gwalior and Indore. This district was the flashpoint of several battles, chief among which was the wresting of control by the Mughals who captured Prince Shahu Sambhaji at the age of nine in 1707. Hence this site is characterized with numerous monuments in the form of cave complexes, fortifications and architecturally rich temples. The topographical land form consisting of hills, also ensured that the settings for most of these monuments were pristine with striking views of the countryside.
LIST OF MONUMENTS
Pohala Caves
DISTRICT Kolhapur       TEHSIL / SUB-DIVISION:   Panhala
LOCALITY Pohala (Lat. 160 47’, Long. 740 12’)
NOTIFICATION NO.: 3 of 1954, dated 02.01.1954
APPROACH: Airport- Karad, Railway Station- Kolhapur, Bus station- Kolhapur
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: These rather plain caves of Buddhist origin are cut in rock near Jyotiba’s hill. There are two main caves, a chaitya and a vihara along with a third cave with a rock cut water cistern. The vihara is a square hall of about 32’ with 14 pillars on each of the three sides. Twenty-three cells open into the hall, each measuring 7’ long, 5’ broad and 7’ high. The entrance into the chaityagriha leads from a verandah by a door with side-windows. The third smaller cave is supposed to have been a lecture room and has a rock cut pulpit or raised seat for the teacher.
TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Pohala caves are located at Jyotiba’s hill about 15Kms to the northeast of Kolhapur.
OWNERSHIP Central Government
IS IT UNDER RELIGIOUS USE No
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL Archaeological Survey of India, Mumbai Circle.
PUBLISHED REFERENCES,
IF ANY:
(1) J. B. B. R. A. S., Vol. IV, (Bombay 1853). (2) James Burgess, Revised List of Antiquarian remains in the Bombay Presidency (Vol. XVI), (Bombay 1885). (3) Bombay Gazette, Vol. XXIV, (Kolhapur 1886)
Panhala Fort
DISTRICT Kolhapur       TEHSIL / SUB-DIVISION:   Panhala
LOCALITY Panhala (Lat. 160 48’, Long. 740 06’)
NOTIFICATION NO.: 3 of 1954, dated 02.01.1954
APPROACH: Karad, Railway Station- Kolhapur, Bus station- Panhala
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The Panhala fort is historically significant and the seat of power of many prominent dynasties that ruled from here. In 1191-92, Panhala was the seat of the Silahara king Bhoja-II, while in 1209 A. D. it passed to Singhanadeva of the Devagiri Yadavas. Then in 1489 A. D., the fort came under Adilshahis of Bijapur and Shivaji wrested its control in 1659, but Ali Adilshah regained it in 1661. The elaborate ramparts, gateways that run along the edge of the hill (that apparently took 100 years to build) as well as the Idagah, palaces and other architectural remains are from this period. A majority of the numerous inscriptions extant in the buildings in question refer to the reign of Ibrahim Adil Shah. In 1673 Shivaji recaptured Panhala and retained it until his death. In 1689 it fell into the hands of the Mughals from whom it was retaken in 1692 by Purusram Trimbak and later was the seat of the Kolapur rajas who long held their court here. It finally came under British control briefly in 1827 and permanently in 1844. The fort of Panhala is the largest and one of the most important hill forts of the Deccan, with its ramparts about 7.25 kms in circumference. For about half of this distance it is protected by scrap and the remaining half is provided with a strongly fortified stone wall 15’ to 30’ thick at the top and with bastions at convenient distances for placing guns. The fort wall entered through three magnificent double gateways of which two, Vagh Darwaza and Char Darwaja have been destroyed while the third, Tin Darwaza, is still intact. There are many important structures within this fort, including the enormous granary built by the Adilshahis, called the Amberkhana and the Andhar vav built over a well. Another structure, the Dharma kothe, was used as granary under the Marathas, while Naikinicha sajja was the favorite resort of the harem of Bijapur ruler.
TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: The Fort of Panhala, with its sister fort of Pawangadh, stands on a ridge about 12 miles to the northwest of Kalapur, forming part of, though more or less divided from, a range of hills that run nearly due east from the Ghats. The fort is situated 19Kms to northeast of Kolhapur. Its elevation above the plain of Kolhapur is calculated at 975’ and that above the sea level 2772’. The position is naturally a very strong one, and as its strength was increased by the elaborate fortifications added at various periods, the fort was long considered impregnable.
OWNERSHIP Central Government
IS IT UNDER RELIGIOUS USE No
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL Archaeological Survey of India, Mumbai Circle.
PUBLISHED REFERENCES,
IF ANY:
(1) James Burgess, Revised List of Antiquarian remains in the Bombay Presidency (Vol. XVI), (Bombay 1885). (2) J. B. B. R. A. S., Vol. IX, (Bombay 1869). (3) Bombay Gazette, Vol. XXIV, (Kolhapur 1886). (4) J. B. Kamalapur, The Deccan Fort, (Bombay 1960).
Ancient Site of Brahmapuri
DISTRICT Kolhapur       TEHSIL / SUB-DIVISION:   Shirol
LOCALITY Kolhapur (Lat. 160 42’, Long. 740 13’)
NOTIFICATION NO.: 3 of 1954, dated 02.01.1954
APPROACH: Airport- Pune, Railway Station- Kolhapur, Bus station- Kolhapur
BRIEF DESCRIPTION:

This monument was excavated first in 1944 and then systematically in 1945. It revealed three cultural sequences given below:

Period – I: Satavahana
Period – II: Silahara
Period – III: Bahmani

TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: The site is situated north-west of Kolhapur city, on the right bank of Panchaganga River.
OWNERSHIP Private
IS IT UNDER RELIGIOUS USE No
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL Archaeological Survey of India, Mumbai Circle.
PUBLISHED REFERENCES,
IF ANY:
(1) J. B. B. R. A. S., Vol. IV, (Bombay 1853). (2) H. D. Sankalia & M. G. Dikshit, Excavations at Brahmapuri, Kolhapur, (Poona. 1952). (3) Bombay Gazette, Vol. XXIV, (Kolhapur 1886).
Khidrapur Temple
DISTRICT Kolhapur       TEHSIL / SUB-DIVISION:   Shirol
LOCALITY Khidrapur (Lat. 160 36’, Long. 740 41’)
NOTIFICATION NO.: 3 of 1954, dated 02.01.1954
APPROACH: Karad, Railway Station- Kolhapur, Bus station- Kolhapur
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Constructed by the Silaharas in the 11th and 13th century, the temple is locally known as Kopeshwar and Dhopeshwar. There is a stone tablet about 1 ¼ meter long, in the Devanagari script, recording the grant of villages to Lord Koppeshwar, dating from 1313 A.D. Some of the key features of this beautiful temple dedicated to Shiva with the nandi absent are its ornamented circular open to sky Natamandapa or Swarga mandapa, the pillared sabhamandapa, profusely carved columns and beams and exquisitely polished statuary. The construction methodology followed is the dry mortar bedding technique. Several scholars draw a parallel between this temple and that of the Kailas at Ellora, on account of the vigorous carved sculpture. The walls of this temple are richly carved and the dome is covered with stucco, which is a later addition. One of the most beautiful creations in the temple is the twenty point stellar mandapa of which 4 points account for the doors and the remaining are points of the star. The Natamandapa is provided with 36 half columns, within which are placed 12 full size pillars supporting the damaged superstructure. The floor patterns contribute to the rich tradition of temple architecture.
TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Built on the extreme eastern part of the Kolhapur city, about 48Kms to the east of Kolhapur city, in Shirole taluka on the banks of the river Krishna.
OWNERSHIP Central Government / Private
IS IT UNDER RELIGIOUS USE Yes
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL Archaeological Survey of India, Mumbai Circle.
PUBLISHED REFERENCES,
IF ANY:
(1) James Burgess, Revised List of Antiquarian remains in the Bombay Presidency (Vol. XVI), (Bombay 1885). (2) Bombay Gazette, Vol. XXIV, (Kolhapur 1886). (3) H. Cousens, Chalukyan, (London 1926). (4) V. V. Mirashi, Inscriptions; of Silharas, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicanum, Vol. VI, (New Delhi 1977). (5) G. K. Kanhere, The Temples of Maharashtra, Maharashtra Information Centre, (New Delhi 1988).